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Africa and the Blues by Gerhard Kubik

By Gerhard Kubik

In 1969 Gerhard Kubik chanced to come across a Mozambican exertions migrant, a miner in Transvaal, South Africa, tapping a cipendani, a mouth-resonated musical bow. A related software used to be obvious within the arms of a white Appalachian musician who claimed it as a part of his personal cultural background. via connections like those Kubik discovered that the hyperlink among those far-flung musicians is African-American song, the sound that turned the blues.

Such discoveries exhibit a story of tune evolution for Kubik, a cultural anthropologist and ethnomusicologist. touring in Africa, Brazil, Venezuela, and the U.S., he spent 40 years within the box accumulating the cloth for Africa and the Blues. during this publication, Kubik relentlessly strains the distant genealogies of African cultural track via eighteen African international locations, in particular within the Western and significant Sudanic Belt.

Included is a entire map of this cradle of the blues, in addition to 31 images accrued in his fieldwork. the writer additionally provides transparent musical notations and outlines of either African and African American traditions and practices and calls into query the numerous assumptions approximately which parts of the blues have been "European" in starting place and approximately which got here from Africa. detailed to this ebook is Kubik's perception into the methods present-day African musicians have followed and enlivened the blues with their very own traditions.

With scholarly care yet with an ease for the final reader, Kubik proposes a completely new concept on blue notes and their origins. Tracing what musical characteristics got here from Africa and what mutations and mergers happened within the Americas, he exhibits that the African American culture we name the blues is actually a musical phenomenon belonging to the African cultural world.

Gerhard Kubik is a professor within the division of ethnology and African reviews on the college of Mainz, Germany. in view that 1983 he has been affiliated with the heart for Social study of Malawi, Zomba. he's an everlasting member of the heart for Black tune examine in Chicago and an Honorary Fellow of the Royal Anthropological Institute of significant Britain and eire, London.

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Dallapiccola uses a 3–1[012] trichord to generate a derived aggregate registrally and temporally. When the four trichords are combined into a single sonority, shown on the right-hand side of (b), the resultant chord also features six stacked tritones. However, it exhibits a different configuration of pitch intervals, <6, 7, 6, 4, 6, 5, 6, 4, 6, 7, 6>, whether one reads top-to-bottom or bottom-to-top. Additionally, each trichord within the initial sonority is rearticulated four times in the measure with a fixed duration: the “soprano” trichords last 9 sixteenths; the alto, 7; the tenor, 3; and the bass, 7.

We can easily connect the chromatic trichord in the horn (mm. 12–13) to the trichord in the cello (mm. 14–15). Similarly, two measures later, we can link the horn’s to the viola’s . 19 Cross Partitions Dallapiccola uses monophonic or homophonic textures to vary the polyphony that tends to dominate the early works. 20 In simplest terms, a cross partition arranges the pitch classes of an aggregate (or a row) into a rectangular design. Typically, the vertical columns of a cross partition are derived from the source row’s segments, whereas the horizontal rows of a cross partition contain non-adjacent elements of the source row.

Indd Sec2:29 4/5/2010 10:18:10 PM 30 dallapiccola’s serial odyssey, 1942–1972 It is not hard to imagine that Leibowitz’s writings would resonate strongly with Dallapiccola, who was by nature drawn to intricate frameworks and polyphony. For instance (the following statements are drawn from the chapter entitled “The Definite Organization of the New World of Sound”): “Polyphony is the most economical of all possible principles of unification,” “The twelve-tone technique constitutes a synthesis of all preceding techniques,” and especially: With the creation of the twelve-tone technique, the art of music enters a new phase—not (as one might suppose) because the works composed in the new system are radically different from the works which led to the discovery of this system, but because the discovery itself marks the precise moment when (as with Bach and Rameau in the tonal system) the intuitive acquisitions of a particular polyphonic period are organized, by a consciousness which comprehends them clearly, into a complete synthesis of the premises which made them possible, and become the basis for future acquisitions.

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