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Algae and Environmental Sustainability by Bhaskar Singh, Kuldeep Bauddh, Faizal Bux

By Bhaskar Singh, Kuldeep Bauddh, Faizal Bux

This e-book provides the dynamic position of algae in a sustainable surroundings. significant points, particularly bioenergy and bioremediation, were elaborated in a number of bankruptcy contributed by means of scientists and academics from assorted geographical components through the international. Algal biofuels is an rising sector of equivalent curiosity to researchers, industries, and coverage makers operating or targeting replacement (i.e. renewable) fuels. Algae were a space of curiosity because of their wide variety of functions. during the last five many years, eukaryotic algae were utilized in the aquaculture as feed for invertebrates, offering a wealthy resource of antioxidants, nutritional fiber, minerals and protein. extra lately, there was a spotlight at the use of algal biomass within the improvement of other fuels. The extraction of oil from algae has been commonly explored as a way more achievable feedstock than plant-based oils in large-scale gasoline creation. utilizing algae as feedstock has the benefits that it doesn’t require arable land and that wastewater can be utilized as a resource of food of their tradition. The multifunctional method of algae contains toxins remediation, carbon sequestration, biofuels creation, and supply of value-added items. notwithstanding, there are nonetheless a few stumbling blocks that must be conquer to make their use as power feedstock for biofuels techno-economically possible. with the intention to keep the sustainability element of

algal biofuels, a number of features need to be studied and severely analyzed to evaluate the long term sustainability of algal derived biofuels.

This publication discusses the position of algae as a promising destiny feedstock for biofuels. they're identified to sequester carbon in a lot higher quantities than crops and as such the publication additionally describes their phycoremediation capability for traditional in addition to rising contaminants. It describes the position of anaerobic digestion in algal biorefineries; bioreactions and method parameters; biogas restoration and reuse. The function of algal biofilm established expertise in wastewater remedy and reworking waste into bio-products is mentioned, and remediation of sewage water via algae is classified. The publication additionally describes the creation of biohydrogen, bio-oil, biodiesel; and the most important bottlenecks of their utilization. The rising characterization suggestions of those biofuels (bio-oil and biodiesel) are defined, as are the decolorizing strength of algae and the genetic engineering suggestions that may improve the creation of lipids in algae. different features of the publication contain the position of distant sensing expertise within the tracking of algae and a existence cycle evaluation of algal biofuels.

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2010). Cultivation of microalgae occurs mostly in suspension using open ponds and photobioreactor systems (Chaumont 1993). 5–4 g/L cells dry weight) with high water content (about 99 %), making recovery of the microscopic cells difficult (Eriksen 2008; Murphy and Allen 2011). A dewatering step is often required to separate the algae from water, which can be energy intensive, time consuming, and sometimes cost prohibitive (Mata et al. 2010). The dewatering techniques commonly applied in suspended growth algal systems include sedimentation, centrifugation, filtration, and flocculation.

Am J Environ Sci 6(3):230–237 Aksu Z (2001) Biosorption of reactive dyes by dried activated sludge. Equilibrium and kinetic modelling. Biochem Eng J 7:79–84 Aksu Z (2002) Determination of the equilibrium, kinetic and thermodynamic parameters of the batch biosorption of nickel (II) ions onto Chlorella vulgaris. Process Biochem 38:89–99 Aksu Z, Kutsal T (1991) A bioseparation process for removing lead (II) ions from waste water by using C. vulgaris. J Chem Technol Biotechnol 52:109–118 Aloysius R, Karim MIA, Arif AB (1999) The mechanism of cadmium removal from aqueous solution by non-metabolizing free and immobilized live biomass of Rhizopus oligosporus.

Algae possess chlorophyll and are able to transform light energy into chemical energy in a similar way to higher plants but lack true roots, stems and leaves. They grow comparatively faster, which results in fixation of CO2 being 10–50 times faster than in plants (Subashchandrabose et al. 2013). When compared to plants, microalgae have a simple cell structure, and they are also often surrounded by fluid allowing easier uptake of water and nutrients (Chacoón-Lee and González-Mariño 2010). Algae are taxonomically divided based on their pigments, storage compounds and the main compounds present in their cell wall.

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